Author Archives: Alan

Top-Level Domain (TLD) explained.

One of the fundamental things you will face if you want to start a website is the domain name. Of course, you have lots of TLDs to pick from! Yet what precisely are the TLDs? Is there a method to determine the most suitable one for your website? Let’s explain a little bit more about it.

What does TLD mean?

TLD is the short acronym for top-level domain. In the Domain Name System (DNS), it is the second level from top to bottom. TLD is interpreted as the last element of a Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN). It stands after the domain name divided with a dot “.”.

The Domain Name System is international and saves a lot of effort for Internet users. The purpose of it is to translate domain names to IP addresses.

The DNS has a tree-like structure. On the top are the root servers, next are the TLD servers, and then the domain nameservers.

The IP addresses of all TLD nameservers are stored in the root servers. In addition, the top-level domain servers hold the IP addresses of the nameservers of every domain name they are answerable for.

In the example, nameservers responsible for .com TLD will hold the coordinates of yahoo.com, google.com, and so on. 

Varieties of TLD

There are two main varieties of TLD – gTLDs and ccTLDs.

The gTLD is short for generic top-level domain. In this group of domain names exist hundreds of examples, so some popular ones are .net, .com, .info, and more. The reason why they are named generic is based on the fact that they are not related to any country. Also furthermore, all of them are possible to express various kinds of aims. For example, .info stands for information, .com is representing commercial, and so on.

It is possible, individuals or businesses to form a new register with a brand-new gTLD. The way is to comply with the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers terms, and also they have to pay a certain fee.

The acronym ccTLD is or country code top-level domain. There exist a particular TLD for any country. Probably you have seen such examples as .de for Germany, .cn for China, .mx for Mexico, etc. To be able to register a ccTLD, you perhaps would need to have a working permit or living in the particular country that you desire to implement the ccTLD. These TLDs are going to work excellent if you own a company in a specific country. Your targeted audience is going to see it right away.

Who’s accountable for managing TLDs?

This is ICANN. Behind this short abbreviation stands for the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers. It is a non-profit organization that is the one responsible for managing the TLDs. That is possible by the IANA. Another short abbreviation, which is for Internet Assigned Numbers Authority.

Simply put, the IANA is a department of ICANN.

Furthermore, ICANN/IANA delegate some of the responsibilities for certain TLDs to diverse companies.

IPv6 explained

What does IPv6 mean?

IPv6 is the latest version of Internet protocol (IP). These protocols are sets of rules for the devices. They are needed to achieve sending and receiving information. The exchange of data happens between a host and a recipient, which is another host. To succeed in the communication, these hosts have to be identified. Their location can be tracked with the help of their corresponding IP addresses. So, the route is established, and the exchange of data can be performed.

An interesting fact is that IPv6 is around for more than twenty years. The introduction was in 1995. The tremendous growth of devices wanting to connect to the Internet showed that IPv4 wouldn’t be able to fulfill such needs. Thus the IPv6 was created and ready to be implemented. However, people were not ready to stop using IPv4. It is a transformation that requires a long period of time to complete.

If you try to count the number of computers, smartphones, tablets, and Internet of things (IoT) that want to connect to the web, they request a unique and individual IP address every day. So, you could assume how significant is the role of IP addresses and also their daily supply.

How does the IPv6 address look like?

IPv6 addresses contain eight sequences of four hexadecimal digits. They are all separated by colons. Also, each sequence signifies 16 bits.

Here is an example with Google’s IPv6 address: 2607:f8b0:4004:0807:0000:0000:0000:200e

Why apply it?

  • You need IP addresses for domain name resolution if you have a website or a network. Perhaps you have an A DNS record, and you use IPv4 for now. Although sooner, it will accrue the need to migrate to AAAA record and IPv6.
  • Connecting several devices and IoT is much more easily. Usually, to accomplish this, you need a lot of IP addresses. To solve this, you have to use network address translation (NAT). It helps map several local private addresses to a public IP as a prior action to transfer the data. If you apply IPv6, you skip this step.
  • Suppose you want to set up network routing at your business or at home. You have to know that there is a chance that older devices may not support the new IPv6.
  • If you want to make several services available on the Internet. For example, application hosting, web hosting, etc.
  • IPv6 is 5G, and its structure is compatible with the future Internet. 

IPv4 vs. IPv6

  • Thanks to the 128-bit addresses, the new IPv6 can provide more than enough available IP addresses. 
  • Another great innovation is IPSec. It is a method of authentication, which encrypts the connection. Also, it validates the sender of the packets. So this allows the receiver to be able to check the data’s origin.
  • SLAAC – stateless address auto-configuration. When you are using IPv6 in a network, you can apply the SLAAC. It will provide a new host’s auto-configuration, and a DHCP server won’t be needed. However, DHCP can still be involved with IPv6 addresses also.
  • There is no more problem with the packets’ fragmentation. The previous IPv4 address experienced it and led to numerous difficulties.